Archive for the ‘Recreation’ Category

Notes on A Confederate Christmas

December 8, 2010

“Santa Claus in Camp, 1864” by Thomas Nast in Harper’s Weekly.

Introductory Note:
“Mrs. James Lafayette Winningham…”
On 24 May 1876 Nancy Hannah Steed married James Lafayette Winningham (ca. 1853- 1930), the son of Siebert Francis Marion Winningham and Laura Ann Lyndon.  Winningham was born at Union Factory, now Randleman, North Carolina.  [Internet geneaological research on the Winningham and Steed families was largely posted by Donald Winningham.]

“…was the daughter of John Stanley Steed and Rachel Director Swaim.”
John Stanley Steed (22 Feb 1829 – 3 May 1899) was the son of Charles Steed (15 May 1782- March 1847), who served Randolph County both as a member of the North Carolina Senate and as a member of the North Carolina House of Representatives.  His mother Hannah Raines (born circa 1788- died after 1850) married Charles Steed on 25 Jan 1806.  John Stanley Steed married Rachel Director Swaim (15 Nov 1835 – 27 Nov 1880) about the year 1852.

Paragraph 1:
“As I was born in 1857…”
Nancy “Nannie” Hannah Steed was born 14 June 1857.

“My mother always took the children home to her father’s for the holidays”
Rachel Steed’s parents were Joshua Swaim (1804-1868) and Nancy H. Polk (1808 – 14 April 1865), who married in Guilford County on 1 September 1824, but lived in the Cedar Falls area (the area west of Franklinville, south of Grays Chapel, and east of Millboro).  The Christmas of 1864 may have stuck in Nannie Steed’s memory because it was the last she would have with her maternal grandmother Nancy Polk Swaim.

Maternal grandfather Joshua Swaim was the son of William Swaim and Elizabeth Sherwood, and nephew of the Clerk of Court Moses Swaim (1788-1870).   Joshua and Nancy Swaim were buried in the old Timber Ridge cemetery near Level Cross.  Here is a link to photographs of their tombstones:

“In their home were our three young aunts and a young uncle, all full of life and fun, and about ten grandchildren.”
Nancy and Joshua Swaim of Cedar Falls had the following children, several of whom had moved West before the time of the Civil War.  Numbers 7 through 10 are Nannie’s “young aunts and uncle”:
1.  James Polk Swaim (November 21, 1825 – February 04, 1890); m. Sarah McDonald about 1848; died in  Franklin County, Ark.
2.  Elizabeth Swaim (September 30, 1827-  June 28, 1846).
3.  Margaret J. Swaim, b. March 22, 1829- February 29, 1848.
4.  Mary Swaim (b. ca. 1831); md. Mr. Glass before 1854.
5.  William Walter Swaim (February 10, 1833 – died October 17, 1905 in Eldora, Hardin County, Iowa); m. Mary Ann Davis, ca. 1859, in Hamilton Co., Indiana.
6.  Rachel Director Swaim, (November 15, 1835 – May 27, 1880); m. John Stanley Steed on October 07, 1852.  [Nannie’s Grandma Swaim]
7.  Luther Clegg Swaim (b. ca. 1837, d. ca. 1868) [Nannie’s Uncle “Luther Clegg”]
8. Susannah Swaim (b. ca. 1840); m. J.L. Coble, September 04, 1862.
9. Hannah Swaim (b. ca. 1841); m. Henry C. Green, October 06, 1864.
10. Martha Swaim (b. ca. 1847).

{The family information is Included in the Polk family genealogy, posted by Kathy Parmenter at }.

“Of us there were my three brothers and myself.”
As of this time in the story, John and Rachel Steed had the following children:  Emily, born 1853, who died in infancy; Wiley Franklin, born 1855; Nancy Hannah, born 1857; Henry Luther, born 1860; Joshua Nathaniel, b. 1862.

Paragraph 2:
“The young people had wheat or potato coffee…”
Imports of coffee and other delicacies were reduced almost to the point of nonexistence by the federal blockade of southern ports.  According to Wikipedia ( ), Roasted acorns, almonds, barley, beechnuts, beetroots, carrots, chicory, corn, cottonseed, dandelion root, figs, okra seed, peas, Irish potatoes (but only the peel), rice, rye, soybeans, and sweet potatoes have all been used as coffee substitutes.  Roasted and ground wheat as a non-caffeinated substitute for coffee was popular again in the United States during both World War I and II, when coffee was sharply rationed.   “Postum”  was the brand name of an instant-style coffee substitute made from wheat bran, corn and molasses which was popular in North Carolina in the 20th century, but production was discontinued in October, 2007.

Paragraph 3:
“In our stockings were…ginger cakes…”
Ginger is a tropical root imported from Africa, Jamaica, India or China.  It was a much-loved spice during the Civil War era; ginger beer, ginger ale, and all sorts of ginger cakes and breads were popular.  Some recipes could be rolled out, cut into shapes and hung on the tree; some were soft like bread and others were hard and crisp.  The following recipe from a Civil War reenactor group makes crisp, sugar- coated cookies suitable for putting in a stocking:

3/4 cups shortening

1 cup sugar

1 beaten egg

1/4 cup molasses

2 tsp. soda

1 tsp. cinnamon

1 tsp. ginger

2 cups flour

Combine shortening and sugar into a cream; add the egg and molasses and mix well. Sift together the dry ingredients and add to the shortening mixture. Mix until combined. Roll into walnut sized balls and roll in sugar. Bake at 350 degrees for 7 – 10 minutes.

Paragraph 4:
“…my aunties started the eggnog…”
Various milk punches were known in Europe and brought to America, so the exact orgin of Egg Nog is obscure.  “Nog” is an old English word with roots in East Anglia dialects that was used to describe a kind of strong beer which was served in a small wooden mug called a “noggin”.   “Egg nog” is first mentioned in the early nineteenth century but an alternative British name was “egg flip,” a punch made with milk and wine, particularly Spanish Sherry.
Internet sites repeatedly cite an unnamed and unsourced English visitor who wrote in 1866, “Christmas is not properly observed unless you brew egg nogg for all comers; everybody calls on everybody else; and each call is celebrated by a solemn egg-nogging…It is made cold and is drunk cold and is to be commended.”
The English author Elizabeth Leslie regularly published cookbooks on both sides of the Atlantic from 1837 to 1857.  Her Directions for Cookery, published in 1840, introduced the concept of the “sandwich” to America.  This recipe for Egg Nogg comes from the edition of 1851:
“Beat separately the yolks and whites of 6 eggs. Stir the yolks into a quart of rich milk, or thin cream, add half a pound of sugar. Then mix in half a pint of rum or brandy. Flavor with a grated nutmeg. Lastly, stir in gently the beaten whites of three eggs. It should be mixed in a china bowl.”

Perhaps the last word on Confederate egg nog would be the recipe of Mary Custis (Mrs. Robert E.) Lee herself::

-10 eggs, separated

-2 c. sugar

-2 1/2 c. brandy

1/2 c. and 1 tsp. dark rum

-8 c. milk or cream

Blend well the yolks of ten eggs, add 1 lb. of sugar; stir in slowly two tumblers of French brandy, 1/2 tumbler of rum, add 2 qts new milk, & lastly the egg whites beaten light (very fluffy).  Allow to “ripen” in a cold but not freezing place; an unheated room or porch was the common location for Mrs. Lee.

From The Robert E. Lee Family Cooking and Housekeeping Book (UNC Press, 2002), by Anne Carter Zimmer.

Paragraph 5:
“…expressed in those days as ‘Christmas Gift’…”
The phrase “Merry Christmas” was popularized around the world following the appearance of the Charles Dickens’ story, A Christmas Carol in 1843.  Robertson Cochrane, Wordplay: origins, meanings, and usage of the English language, p.126. (University of Toronto Press, 1996).  “Christmas Gift!”  is an earlier Southern tradition, used as a greeting.   The first person saying it on Christmas morning traditionally received a gift.  See “Whistlin’ Dixie: A Dictionary of Southern Expressions” by Robert Hendrickson (Pocket Books, New York, 1993).

Paragraph 6:
“Which is it, the old bad man or the Yankees?”
She is using a euphemism for “the Devil,” a word considered to be so much a curse word at the time that a well-bred young lady was not allowed to use such language.  The Devil was on the side of the Yankees, just as God was supposed to be on the side of the Confederacy.

“Little Christmas Waifs Are We”- 19th century Christmas Card

“…the old English custom of the waifs of England.”
It is unclear whether Nannie has here conflated two distinct Christmas rituals from medieval England, or whether the traditions had previously merged in the antebellum South.
The surviving English tradition is of the Christmas “Waits,” musicians and singers who go from door to door “waiting,” or caroling.  According to the 11th edition of the Encyclopedia Brittanica, “wait” is the name of a medieval night watchman, who sounded a horn or played tunes to mark the hours.  By the 15th century waits had become bands of itinerant musicians who paraded the streets at night at Christmas time, and became combined with another ancient tradition, “wassailing”.  It gradually became expected that the musicians would receive gifts and gratuities from the townspeople, and often “those who went wassailing would dress up like street waifs or ragamuffins.”,320599343
One other British custom of the Christmas season was specifically aimed at soliciting alms.  “Thomasing” anciently occured on 21 December (St Thomas’s Day) when the village poor people visited the homes of their better-off neighbours soliciting food and provisions to help them through the winter. Also called “Gooding,” “Mumping,” and “Doleing,” the earliest reference is from the year 1560, but the custom gradually declined through the 19th century as poor relief was institutionalized, and laws were passed against ‘begging’.
In the South this tradition may have inspired a tradition of inviting local orphans or “waifs” to spend Christmas afternoon with rural families or in urban church socials. [ ]  In 1864 the “ crowning amusement” of Christmas day for the Davis children in Richmond was “the children’s tree,” erected in the basement of St. Paul’s Church, decorated with strung popcorn, and hung with small gifts for orphans.   (First Lady Varina Davis’s 1896 article “Christmas in the Confederate White House” makes an  interesting contrast to Nannie Steed Winningham’s story of Christmas in rural Randolph County; ).

The First Confederate States Flag

Paragraph 7:
“ The Bonnie Blue Flag”
-is a marching song associated with the Confederacy.   The song was written to an Irish melody by entertainer Harry McCarthy during a concert in Jackson, Mississippi, in the spring of 1861 and first published that same year in New Orleans.  The song’s title refers to the unofficial first flag of the Confederate States, the symbol of secession from the Union bearing the “single star” of the chorus.   The “Band of Brothers” mentioned in the first line of the song is a reference to the St. Crispin’s day speech in Shakespeare’s play Henry V.
Here is the song:

“The Girl I left behind me”
-is a popular folk tune.  The first known printed text appeared in an Irish song collection in 1791; the earliest known version of the melody was printed in Dublin about 1810.   It was known in Britain as early as 1650, under the name “Brighton Camp”.  It was adopted by the US regular army as a marching tune during the War of 1812 after they heard a British prisoner singing it.
The song can be heard here:

“Hurrah for the Southern Rights, Hurrah! Hurrah!”
-Hurrah! Hurrah!/ For Southern rights, hurrah!” is actually the first two lines of the chorus of  “The Bonnie Blue Flag.”  ‘Hurrah! Hurrah! For the Southern Rights, hurrah!’ is an alternative reading of the line that is only found in Gone With The Wind, page 236.  Both undoubtedly reflect the way singers at the time added ‘the’ to mirror the same article in ‘the’ Bonnie Blue Flag.

“Hurrah! for the Homespun Dress the Southern Ladies Wear”
-”The Homespun Dress,” also known as “The Southern Girl,” or “The Southern Girl’s Song,” is a parody of The Bonnie Blue Flag that oral historians have found in variant versions all over the South.  Most authorities attribute the words to Miss Carrie Belle Sinclair of Augusta, Georgia.  See Songs of the Civil War, by Irwin Silber, Jerry Silverman; Dover, 1995, p.54.  The lyrics can be found at

Oh, yes, I am a Southern girl,

And glory in the name,

And boast it with far greater pride

Than glittering wealth and fame.

We envy not the Northern girl

Her robes of beauty rare,

Though diamonds grace her snowy neck

And pearls bedeck her hair.

CHORUS: Hurrah! Hurrah!

For the sunny South so dear;

Three cheers for the homespun dress

The Southern ladies wear!

Paragraph 8:
“…Mars Luther Clegg had drinked too much eggnog.”
“Mars,” short-hand for “Master,” was used by enslaved people as a general title of respect, in the same way that white people would use “Mister.”
Luther Clegg Swaim was born in Cedar Falls in 1837.  On February 1, 1866 he married Dorcas Aretta Odell (1828-1918), daughter of James Odell and wife Anna Trogdon.  This was the second marriage for Dorcas Odell, the sister of J.M. Odell and J.A. Odell who worked for George Makepeace in the factory stores at Cedar Falls and Franklinsville.  John M. Odell was the first Captain of the Randolph Hornets, Company M.  Her brother Laban Odell became Major of the 22nd Regiment, and was killed at Chancellorsville.  Her first husband was her second cousin, Solomon Franklin Trogdon, who died in 1860.  She had two sons in the first marriage, and a daughter with Luther Clegg Swaim before he died in 1868.  Dorcas’s son Williard Franklin Trogdon became the original geneaologist of the Trogdon family, publishing the family history which provided this information in 1926.

Paragraph 9:
“My father and my uncle owned and operated a large tannery, shoe and harness shop.”
The J. S. Steed family is the very first one listed in the Western Division of Randolph County’s 1860 census; his occupation is listed as “Tanning,”  and a 17-year-old boarder living with them is listed as “Apprentice Tanner.”  Family #2 in that census is David Porter, a buggy manufacturer and grandfather of author William Sidney Porter.  I believe the Porters lived on the southeast corner of the intersection of Salisbury Street and the Plank Road (Fayetteville Street)- where First Bank is today.

The 1860 Census  of Manufacturing for Randolph County lists “J.W. & J.S. Steed” as engaged in “Tanning… Boot and Shoe Making…[and] Harness Making.”  6 employees in 1859 cured “1400 sides of harness, sole and upper leather” worth $2000; made 40 pair of boots worth $300; 250 pair of shoes worth $500; and 50 setts of harness worth $900.

The Steeds probably lived on Salisbury between Cox and the Plank Road, but the location of his tannery is unclear.  The only tannery I am aware of that was ever located in or around Asheboro itself is the one located on the site of the present-day Frazier Park, across Park Street from Loflin Elementary School.  The branch that heads in a spring (now piped underground) on that site is called Tan Yard Branch.

“My uncle” refers to the “J.W. Steed” listed on the Census of Manufacturing; this was Joseph Warren Steed (1815-1873), who was elected Sheriff of Randolph County in 1848 after having served as Deputy to Sheriff Isaac White. Sheriff Steed, in politics a Whig, lost the election in 1864 to Zebedee Franklin Rush, the Peace Party (or “Red String”) candidate.   The oldest of Charles Steed’s three sons was Nathaniel Steed (3 May 1812 -10 Nov 1880).  In 1832 Nathaniel married Sarah (“Sallie”) Redding (9 Oct. 1811 -10 Aug. 1852), daughter of John Redding and Martha Jane Swaim.  They are buried at Charlotte Church, on Old Lexington Road west of Asheboro.  B.F. Steed, the eldest son of Nathaniel, served as Deputy to his uncle J.W. Steed.  The Steeds and Reddings were known for being very tall men, some more than six and a half feet tall.

“Early in 1864 my father… was drafted and sent to eastern Carolina, where he was in the service..”
[Some of you Civil War experts, trace his service record, please.]

Paragraph 10:
“…our faithful family physician, who on account of advancing years bad about given up his practice until the war began…”
Could this have been Dr. John Milton Worth, (28 June 1811 -5 April 1900), who studied at the Medical College in Lexington, Kentucky and practiced in Asheboro up to the time of the war?  A substantial part of Dr. Worth’s war years were spent overseeing the Salt Works near Fort Fisher, so this may be some other faithful family physician.

“On the morning of the 10th we were told we had a little brother named for his daddy…”
John Stanley Steed, Jr., born December 1864.  The Steeds would have five more children over the next 15 years.  Rachel Steed evidently died during childbirth in 1880.

A view of antebellum New Bern from the Neuse River

Paragraph 12:
“There was a man in our town called Captain Pragg, who owned a dry goods store…”
The name “Pragg” is not found in the Randolph County census records for 1860 or 1870, but “Isaiah Prag” does appear in Randolph County marriage bond records for April 19, 1865, when he married “Mrs. Jane Sugg.”  This was apparently the second marriage for each of them, as according to family genealogical records “Mrs. Sugg”‘s maiden name was Jane Adaline Andrews (1841-1907).  She may have a family connection to Lt. Col. Hezekiah L. Andrews of western Randolph, who was killed at Gettysburg.
Isaiah  Prag was born 20 October 1824 in the town of Hadamar in the state of Hesse, Germany.  He first appears in America in the 1850 census of Annapolis, Maryland, with wife Rose Adler (1827-1864), and a new baby, Mary.  Prag would ultimately have 8 children by his first wife, and 7 by his second.  By 1860 Isaiah and family have relocated to New Bern, NC, where he is in business as a “merchant.”   From June 1, 1861 to February 10, 1862, the state Quartermaster’s office paid receipts totalling $13,113.20 for purchases from Isaiah Prag.  He evidently provided most of the “dry goods” or clothing needed to equip at least two companies of Craven County volunteer troops: Company F and Company K (The Elm City Rifles):  98 suit coats and pants; 74 flannel shirts and 199 striped shirts; 218 caps, 141 pairs of “drawers” and 160 pairs of “pantaloons;” not to mention 556 overcoats- enough for 5 companies!
Isaiah Prag is also listed as an “Ordinance Sergeant” in Company B of Clark’s Special Battalion of the North Carolina Militia, but further details of his military service are not yet known.
Prag’s initial connection to Randolph County is also unclear.  It is possible that he was involved with the local factories in the production of underwear under contract to the Quartermaster.  His work supplying the army may have forced him to leave New Bern after its capture by federal forces on March 14, 1862.  It doesn’t seem likely that Prag would have been allowed to frequently cross enemy lines if his family remained in New Bern, but  Rose Adler Prag is said to have died in New Bern on July 20, 1864.
The 1870 census finds Isaiah and Jane Prag in Calvert County, Maryland.  The 1879-80 city directory of Baltimore (p. 625) lists 6 separate families of Prags, with Isaiah listed as selling furniture.  The 1880 census finds him settled in Cambridge, Maryland, the seat of Dorchester County on the eastern shore of the Chesapeake Bay.  This is where family records place him at the time of his death, April 18, 1889.
It appears that Isaiah and Rose Adler Prag were Jewish, and may have been one of the first Jewish families to reside in Randolph County.  That may be why Isaiah gave the Steed family as valuable a gift as the ham would have been in 1864- religious dietary laws would have prevented him from eating it.
[Sources:  US Census records for the years cited; Randolph County Marriage Bonds; Miscellaneous Records of the North Carolina Quartermaster’s dealings with Isaiah Prag or Pragg, preserved in the National Archives at Confederate Papers Relating to Citizens or Business Firms, 1861-65 ; the Park Service online list of Civil War Soldiers and Sailors System, at>; Prag family geneaology records on at .]

Paragraph 13:
“My present was a balmoral (petticoat) which she had carded, spun and woven herself…”
A Balmoral was a long woollen petticoat which was popularized by Queen Victoria at Balmoral Castle in Scotland.  Usually of striped fabric, it was worn immediately beneath the dress so that it showed below the skirt.

The woman wearing a Balmoral in this “carte de visite” is Rachel Bodley (1831-1888), the first female chemistry professor at Philadelphia’s Women’s Medical College from 1865 to 1873.

Paragraph 14:
“…a bowl of mush or … plate of thick corn pones.”
Corn Meal Mush was made two different ways, and it appears that Mr. Winningham liked both of them.  The first was prepared in rolls like sausage or in loaf pans like modern liver pudding.  The cook would cut it in slices, dredge in egg yolk, dust in flour, fry and serve with butter, molasses, syrup or powdered sugar.  The second method was to boil the corn meal in a saucepan just as if preparing raw oatmeal or grits.  It was then served hot in a bowl topped with milk, sugar, fruit, raisins, nuts or ice cream.
“Corn Pone” is corn bread made without milk or eggs, and either baked in hot coals (as described by Nannie Winningham) or fried.

Modern Corn Pone Recipe (makes 4 servings):

Ingredients:  3 cups cornmeal; 3 teaspoons salt; 2-3 cups water; 3 tablespoons lard

Directions:  Bring water to a boil in a medium sauce pan. Add cornmeal and salt and immediately remove from stove. Mix well.  Melt half of lard in a baking pan to coat. Stir remaining lard into corn meal mixture. Pour mixture into baking pan.  Bake at 350 degrees for about 50 minutes, or until golden brown.

Reuben Wood’s Library III

March 17, 2010

Reuben Wood’s Library, Listed in Estate Sale

223 titles sold at his auction, November 1812

Transcribed from Randolph County, NC, Will Book 4, beginning at Page 2, by Mac Whatley.

Reference Works -4

Johnston’s Dictionary    0.10.0
[Samuel Johnson, A Dictionary of the English Language: In Which the Words are Deduced from their Originals and Illustrated in their Different Significations by Examples from the Best Writers;  (London: published 15 April 1755) was the most influential English dictionary prior to the publication of the Oxford English Dictionary 173 years later.]
Atlas                     2.13.0
Domestic Medicine    0.9.0
[Buchan, William. Domestic Medicine, or A Treatise on the Prevention and Cure of Diseases By Regimen and Simple Medicines. Exeter: J.B. Williams, 1785.  Homeopathic remedies and preventative medical practices advocated by a Scottish physician.]
Murrays Introduction             0.5.0
[Lindley Murray (1745-1826), Murray’s Introduction to English Grammar: Compiled for the Use of the Youth in Baltimore Academy, Tammany Street: To Which is Added, An essay on Punctuation.  Baltimore: Printed by S. Engles & Co. at the Academy Press, 1806.]
Art of Speaking            0.10.0
[James Burgh, The art of speaking: containing, I. An essay; in which are given rules for expressing properly the principal passions and humours, which occur in reading and public speaking; and II. Lessons taken from the ancients and moderns (with additions and alterations, where thought useful)… Printed by Joseph Bumstead, for Ebenezer Larkin, 1793 (2nd ed.), 322pp.]

English Literature – 23

Akinses Letters    1.0.0
[John Aikin, M.D. (1747-1822), Letters from a Father to his Son, on various topics, Relative to Literature and the Conduct of Life.  London, 1796-1800.  Aikin was a prominent Unitarian-Universalist.  Porc-Aiken’s Letters, 12mo.]
Bells Poems                    0.2.1
[George Bell, A collection of poems on various subjects. By George Bell, Wright in Jedburgh.  Edinburgh: printed by William Turnbull, 1794; 34pp. 12mo.]
Blairs Letters                2.0.0
[Possibly Letters on Dr. Blair’s sermons.  Edinburgh:  printed for C. Elliot, and W. Coke, Leith, 1779; 35pp. 8vo.  “Dr.Blair” would be Hugh Blair (1718-1800), Scottish professor and Presbyterian preacher.]
Churchills works         0.2.7
[The Works of C. Churchill.  In 4 Volumes.  London: Printed for John Churchill (Executor of the Late C. Churchill) and W. Flexney.  5th ed., 1774.  Charles Churchill, 1731-1764, was an 18th c. poet and satirist.)]
Clarisa Harlow            2.3.0 [probably The history of Miss Clarissa Harlowe, comprehending the most important concerns of private life, and shewing wherein the arts of a designing villain, and the rigour of parental authority, conspired to complete the ruin of a virtuous daughter. Abridged from the works of Samuel Richardson, Esq. Author of Pamela and Sir Charles Grandison. Philadelphia, 1798.  Samuel Richardson (1689-1761) published the very popular early novel “Clarissa, Or, The History of a Young Lady” in 1748 in 8vol,
and there are many editions.  Only those published in the 1780s and 90s appear to use the title “Clarissa Harlowe”.]
Critical Essa on poetry        0.5.6
[perhaps William Duff (1732-1815), Critical observations on the writings of the most celebrated original geniuses in poetry. Being a sequel to the Essay on original genius. By W. Duff, A.M.  London, 1770; 372pp. 8vo.]
Eppagoniad             0.4.2
[William Wilkie (1721-1772), Epigoniad (1757), an epic poem on the Epigoni, sons of the seven heroes who fought against Thebes.]
Paradise Lost            0.8.0

[John Milton, Paradise Lost, A Poem in Ten Books. London, 1667.]
Hudibras                1.0.0
[Samuel Butler, Hudibras, In Three Parts.  Written in the Time of the Late Wars. First Ed., London, 1684.  First American edition. Troy (NY): Wright, Goodenow, & Stockwell, 1806. 12mo, 286pp.  CH Phil Soc has “Butler’s Hudibras”]
Goldsmiths Essas    0.10.0
[The Bee, A Select Collection of Essays, on the Most Interesting and Entertaining Subjects.  London: 1759.]
The London Magazine        1.1.0
[The London magazine: or, Gentleman’s monthly intelligencer.  London: printed by C[harles]. Ackers in St. John’s Street, for J[ohn]. Wilford, behind the Chapter-House in St. Paul’s Church-Yard; .T[homas]. Cox [sic] at the Lamb under the Royal-Exchange; J[ohn]. Clarke at the Golden-Ball in Duck-Lane; and T[homas]. Astley at the Rose over-against the North Door of St. Pauls, 1732-36; 4 vol.]
Peter Pindar            1.0.0
[perhaps John Wolcott, writing as Peter Pindar: Odes to Kien Long, The  Present Emperor of China; with The Quakers, A Tale… London, 1792- price 3 shillings.  Wolcott was a satirical comic author in late 18th c. society.  Uva- Pindar’s (Peter) Works, London, 1797, 3 vol. 12mo.]
The Pleasures of Memory 0.8.6
[Samuel Rogers, The Pleasures of Memory with Other Poems. First Ed., London: 1793]
The Rambler           2.2.0
[Samuel Johnson (1709-1784) , The Rambler, 4 volumes, published in London, 1750-52;  perhaps the 1791 London 12vo edition “printed for J. Hodges, W. Millar, R. Tonson, T. French, J. Ottridge.”]
The Rambler            0.3.0
[2nd copy?  perhaps an older edition, in bad condition…]
Sterns Works            1.5.0

[The Collected Works of Laurence Sterne (1713-1768) were first published in 1779.  He was best known as the author of Tristram Shandy, but also wrote A Political Romance and A Sentimental Juorney Through France and Italy, as well as multiple volumes of sermons.]

Sheritons Poems        0.6.0

[Richard Brinsley Sheridan, the Irish playwright and author of The Rivals and The School for Scandal, doesn’t seem to have written poems…]

Spectator                        0.3.8
[The Spectator, an influential daily literary magazine edited by Joseph Addison and Richard Steele and first published 1711, and reprinted many times later in the century.  Each ‘paper’, or ‘number’, was approximately 2,500 words long, and the original run consisted of 555 numbers. These were collected into seven volumes, and a revival published in 1714 was collected to form an eighth volume.]
Thomsons Seasons        0.7.6
[James Thomson, The Seasons (1730), a very popular book-length poem]
Tom Jones            1.18.0
[Henry Fielding, The History of Tom Jones, A Foundling.  London, 1763.  many editions.]
Temple of Nature        1.0.0
[Erasmus Darwin, The Temple of Nature: Or, The Origin of Society: A Poem, with Philosophical Notes.  1802.  Charles Darwin’s grandfather- poet, philosopher, naturalist and one of the leading intellectuals of 18th c. England.]
Tristam Shandy            0.13.0
[Laurence Sterne, The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman.  orig. 9 vol. 1759-1767.  many editions.]
Youngs Knight Thoughts    0.5.3
[Edward Young, The Complaint; or, Night-Thoughts on Life, Death, & Immortality. 1st Ed. 1745; partial 1797 ed. by Richard Edwards was illustrated by William Blake.]

Classical Literature – 16

Ciceros Morals                    0.11.3
[Marcus Tullius Cicero, The morals of Cicero. Containing, I. His conferences de finibus: or, concerning the ends of things good and evil. In which, All the Principles of the Epicureans, Stoics, and Academics, concerning the Ultimate Point of Happiness and Misery, are fully discuss’d. II. His academics; or, conferences concerning the criterion of truth, and the fallibility of human judgment. Translated into English, by William Guthrie, Esq.  London: Printed for T. Waller, at the Crown and Mitre, opposite Fetter-lane, in Fleet-street, 1744; 44pp., 8vo.]
Clarks Nepos               0.5.0
[Cornelius Nepos (c. 100-24 BC) was a Roman writer and biographer. Cornelii Nepotis Vita excellentium imperatorum: cum versione Anglicâ, in qua Verbum de Verbo, quantum fieri potuit, redditur: notis quoque Anglicis, & indice Locupletissimo; Or, Cornelius Nepos’s Lives of the excellent commanders. With an English translation, as Literal as possible: with English notes, and a large index. By John Clarke, Master of the Publick Grammar School in Hull. In Pursuance of the Method of Teaching the Latin Tongue, laid down by him in his Essay upon Education.  London, 1734; parallel English and Latin texts, 280pp. 8vo.;15th ed. 1797.]
Clark Salest            0.7.6
[Sallust (86-34 B.C), C. Crispi Sallustii Bellum Catilinarium et Jugurthinum; cum versione libera. Præmittitur dissertatio, … et vita Sallustii, auctore … Joanne Clerico. I.E. The history of the wars of Catiline and Jugurtha, by Sallust; with a free translation. To which is prefixed a large dissertation … as also, the life of Sallust, by … Mons. Le Clerc. By John Clarke.  London: 1755.  245pp. 8vo. Parallel English and Latin texts.   Part of Benjamin Franklin’s printed inventory left with Mr. Hall in 1748 were “Clark’s Grammar; Clark’s Erasmus; Clark’s Esop; Clark’s Sallust; Clark’s Justin; Clark’s Horus.]
?Juvaniles Letters        1.10.0
[Juvenal wrote Satires…
Deonizeas?            0.2.6
[possibly Dyonisus, translated into blank verse, from the Greek of Dr. Wells’s edition, containing both antient and modern geography. By B. D. Free, M.A. and a student of Lincoln’s-Inn.  London: 1785? 66p. 12 mo.  This is apparently an adaptation of Edward Wells’ ‘Treatise of antient and modern geography’, first published in 1701, however, no Greek language edition is known.]
Duncans Cicero        1.15.0
[(Marcus Tullius) Cicero’s Select Orations, Translated Into English with the Original Latin, from the Best Editions, on the Opposite Page; and Notes, Historical, Critical and Explanatory Designed for the Use of Schools as Well as Private Gentlemen.  By William Duncan, Professor of Philosophy in the University of Aberdeen.  New Haven: Sidney’s Press, 1811.  Duncan’s first edition featuring parallel text was published in Edinburgh in 1801.]
Davidson’s Horace        1.3.6
[The odes, epodes, and carmen seculare of Horace, translated into English prose; with … notes, and a preface to each ode… London: Printed for Joseph Davidson, 1740.  400pp., 8mo.]
Davidson’s Virgil                1.6.0
[The works of Virgil translated into English prose, As near the Original as the different Idioms of the Latin and English Languages will allow. With the Latin text and order of construction in the opposite page; and Critical, Historical, Geographical, and Classical Notes, in English, from the best Commentators both Ancient and Modern, beside a very great number of notes intirely new. For the Use of Schools as well as of Private Gentlemen. In two volumes. London: printed for Joseph Davidson, at the Angel in the Poultry, Cheapside, 1743.  2 vol. 8 mo.]
Davidson’s Ovid                    0.12.6
[Ovid (43 B.C.-17 or 18 A.D) The epistles of Ovid translated into English prose, as near the original as the different idioms of the Latin and English languages will allow. … For the use of schools as well as of private gentlemen.  London: Printed for Joseph Davidson, 1746 (et. seq.).  Or an American edition:  Ten select books of Ovid’s Metamorphoses; with an English translation, compiled from the two former translations, by Davidson and Clarke; a prosody table and references, (after the manner of Mr. Stirling) pointing out, at one view, the scanning of each verse; and Davidson’s English notes.  Philadelphia: Printed by William Spotswood, 1790.  4 vol., 12 mo.]
A Greek Grammar            0.2.0
[perhaps Caleb Alexander (1755-1828), A Grammatical System of the Greek Language, Printed at Worcester, Massachusetts : at the press of, and for Isaiah Thomas, 1796.]
Guide to Classical Learning    0.6.0
[Joseph Spence Spence (1699-1768), A Guide to Classical Learning. London : printed for J. Dodsley, in Pall-Mall, and R. Horsfield, in Ludgate-Street, 1764. (Last ed. 1786).]
Latin Grammar                    0.2.6
[Davidson, James. Short introduction to Latin grammar for the use of the the university and academy of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. Exeter, [N.H.]: By and for J. Lamson, 1794. 12mo; 108 pp.  First published in 1781 and the most successful Latin grammar of late 18th-century U.S.; there were ten editions published before 1800.  James Davidson was a professor at the school later known as The University of Pennsylvania. Since Wood owned three other translations by Davidson, I’m hypothesizing this generic title describes the same author’s Latin Grammar.]
Oveds Art of Love        0.12.0
[Ovid, Ars Amatoria (“The Art of Love”), is an erotic tale set in Rome, 8 AD.]
Plutarchs Lives            6.2.6
[Mestrius Plutarchus (circa  45 – 125 A.D.), Priest of the Delphic Oracle, wrote a very lengthy book of “biographies” of Gods and Heroes which is one of the most popular Greek works of all time. The first printed edition of Plutarch was published in Paris in 1572, and was made up of 13 volumes.  Sir Thomas North prepared the first English edition of Plutarch’s Lives in 1579, and Shakespeare borrowed heavily from it to write his plays.  Wood’s version could be any one of many editions, but the high price paid indicates that it was a complete multi-volume set.
Wartrons Virgil                1.17.6
[Virgil (Publius Vergilius Maro) (70 – 19 BC); The Works of Virgil in Latin and English, 4 vols. [vol. i, The Eclogues and Georgics, tr. Joseph Warton], London 1753.  Joseph Warton (1722–1800) translated Virgil’s ten pastoral poems known as the Ecologues into rhymed couplets.] (David Watson was also a mid-18th c. translator…)

Youngs Dictionary            0.15.0
[Rev. William Young (d. 1757), A new Latin-English dictionary: Containing all the words proper for reading the classic writers, with the Authorities subjoined to each Word and Phrase. To which is prefixed, a new English-Latin dictionary, Carefully Compiled from the best Authors in our Language. Both Parts greatly improved, beyond all the preceding Works of the same Nature; supplying their Deficiencies, and comprising whatever is useful and valuable in all former Dictionaries. By the King’s Authority. Designed for the General Use of Schools and Private Gentlemen. By the Rev. Mr. William Young, Editor of Ainsworth’s Dictionary.  London, 1757; 1,024pp., 8vo.]

Reuben Wood’s Library IV

March 16, 2010


Law Library – 67

Adamses Defence            0.10.0
[John Adams (1735-1826), A Defence of the Constitution and Government of the United States of America, London, 1787. 3 vol. 8vo.- UVa]
Adkins Reports              6.5.0
[Akyn’s Reports, London, 1781.  3 vol. 8 vo.;  Aleyn’s Reports, London, 1790 1vol fol]
Attornies Pocket Book            0.6.0
[The Attorney’s Compleat Pocket Book.  London : printed by his Majesty’s Law-Printers; for P. Uriel, T. Caslon, E. Brooke, and W. Stuart, 1780 (First edition 1741).  “By the Author of the Attorney’s practice epitomized” (another legal handbook published in 1743 and thought to have been written or edited by Edward Sayer, Esq.).
Blackstones Commentaries    4.6.0
[BLACKSTONE, William. COMMENTARIES ON THE LAWS OF ENGLAND. Oxford: Clarendon, 1767-9. 4 vols, 4to.  “Until the Commentaries, the ordinary Englishman had viewed the law as a vast, unintelligible and unfriendly machine; nothing but trouble, even danger, was to be expected from contact with it. Blackstone’s great achievement was to popularize the law and the traditions which had influenced its formation. He has been accused of playing to the gallery, of flattering the national vice of complacency with existing institutions. The charge is in many respects just; but it is no small achievement to change the whole climate of public opinion. The law might be as much an ass after Blackstone as before, but it was a familiar ass… If the English constitution survived the troubles of the next century, it was because the law had gained a new popular respect, and his was due in part to the enormous success of Blackstone’s work.” PMM 212. Eller 1,2,4. ]
Blackstones Reports           3.15.0
[Sir William Blackstone (1723-1780), Reports of cases determined in the several courts of Westminster Hall, from 1746 to 1779. 2 vols. 1781.]
Bescaria on Crimes        0.10.6
[Cesare Bonesana, Marchese Beccaria (1738-1794).  Originally published in Italian in 1764: Dei delitti e delle pene. First American Edition: An Essay on Crimes and Punishments. Written by the Marquis Beccaria, of Milan. With a commentary attributed to Monsieur de Voltaire. Philadelphia: Printed and sold by R. Bell, next door to St. Paul’s Church, in Third-Street. MDCCLXXVIII (1778).]
Burrises Justice              2.0.0
Burrows Reports             5.10.0
[Burrow’s Reports, London, 1790.  5vol. 8 vo. -UVa]
Coke Littleton            6.5.0
[Sir Edward Coke, The First Part of the Institutes of the Laws of England, or, a Commentary upon Littleton.  Vol. 1 (of 4) published 1628.]
Coopers & Douglass Reports  4.0.0
Constitutions of England            0.10.0
[Jean Louis de Lolme (1740-1806), The constitution of England, or, An account of the English government : in which it is compared both with the republican form of government and the other monarchies in Europe / by J.L. de Lolme, advocate, member of the Council of the Two Hundred in the Republic of Geneva.   1st ed., London, 1775; New-York : Printed by Hodge & Campbell, 1792. 400pp, 12mo.]
Crown Circuit Companion        0.15.0
[W. Stubbs, The Crown Circuit Companion, [London] : In the Savoy: printed by E. and R. Nutt, and R. Gossling, 1738 (1st ed.); reprinted regularly, latest edition for Wood was 1799.
Cruis’s Essas on fines       0.8.6
[Cruise, William (d. 1824), An Essay on the Nature and Operation of Fines and Recoveries.  London : printed by W. Strahan and W. Woodfall, Law Printers to His Majesty, 1783.  Reprinted regularly in the 1790s, with a Dublin edition in 1788.]
Criminal Law                        1.0.0
[could be Sir William Blackstone (1723-1780), The law of crimes and misdemeanors. With the means of their prevention and punishment. Exhibiting, the pleas of the state against the offenders of society, under the following heads. I. The general nature of crimes and punishments. II. The persons capable of committing crimes. III. Their several degrees of guilt, as principals or accessories. IV. The several species of crimes, with the punishment annexed to each by the law. V. The means of preventing the perpetration of crimes. VI. The method of inflicting those punishments, which the law has annexed to each several crime and misdemeanor. Containing a valuable code of criminal law; being the complete book, of the celebrated Judge Blackstone’s commentaries on public wrongs.  Philadelphia: Printed and sold by Robert Bell, in Third-Street, 1772; 386pp. 4vo.]
Debates in Convention        0.10.0
[?probably Debates and other proceedings of the Convention of Virginia : convened at Richmond, on Monday the 2d day of June 1788, for the purpose of deliberating on the constitution recommended by the Grand Federal Convention, to which is prefixed the federal constitution. Petersburg : Printed by Hunter and Prentis, 1788-1789. 485pp., 8vo.  The 2nd ed. was Richmond : Ritchie & Worsley and Augustine Davis, 1805.]
Debates in Congress    0.5.0
[?perhaps Debates in the Congress of the United States, on the bill for repealing the law “for the more convenient organization of the courts of the United States”; during the first session of the Seventh Congress. And a list of yeas and nays on that interesting subject.  Albany, Printed for Collier and Stockwell, 1802.  800 pp. 8vo.  The daily proceedings of the US Congress were not yet regularly printed by 1812.]
Durnsford States Reports    12.10.0
[? expensive!
Edgeworths Trials              0.10.0
English Laws                  5.0.0
[expensive!  Possibly Sir William Dugdale (1605-1686), Historical memorials of the English laws, or Origines juridiciales, or, Historical memorials of the English laws, courts of justice, forms of tryall, punishment in cases criminal, law writers, law books, grants and settlements of estates, degree of serjeant, Innes of court and chancery. Also a chronologie of the lord chancelors and keepers of the great seal, lord treasurers, justices itinerant, justices of the Kings bench and Common pleas, barons of the Exchequer, masters of the rolls, Kings attorneys and sollicitors, & serjeants at law, by William Dvgdale; 1st ed. 1666; London, 1790. 2vol folio.]
Elements of Jurisprudence    0.10.0
[Richard Wooddeson (1745-1822), Elements of jurisprudence treated of in the preliminary part of a course of lectures on the laws of England.  London: printed for T. Payne and Son, at the Mews Gate, 1783; 122pp. 4vo. (Dublin ed. 1792)]
Fastirs Crown?       0.15.0
A report of some proceedings on the commission for the trial of the rebels in the year 1746, in the county of Surry: and of other crown cases: to which are added discourses upon a few branches of the crown law : by Sir Michael Foster, knt. London, W. Clarke and sons, 1809; The 3d ed., with an appendix containing new cases. With additional notes and references by his nephew, Michael Dodson.  500pp. 8vo.  UVa has Foster’s Crown Law, Dodson, London, 1809. 1 vol. 8vo. / not in ESTC.]
Gilberts Law of Evidence        0.10.0

[Sir Geoffrey Gilbert (1674-1726), The law of evidence: with all the original references, carefully compared. To which is added, a great number of new references, … And now first publish’d from an exact copy taken from the original manuscript. With a compleat table to the whole. By a late learned judge.  Dublin, 1754; 260pp. 4o.]
Haywoods Reports 1 & 2 Vol    1.19.0
[John Haywood (1762-1826), Reports of cases adjudged in the Superior Courts of Law and Equity of the state of North-Carolina, from the year 1789, to the year 1798. By John Haywood, Esquire, one of the judges of the Superior Courts of Law and Equity.  Halifax [N.C.] : Printed by Abraham Hodge, 1799; 524pp. 8vo.  A second volume was published in 1806.]
Hales Crown Law              2.10.0
[Sir Matthew Hale, Pleas of the crown, or, A brief but full account of whatsoever can be found relating to that subject. 1st ed., London : Printed for Richard Tonson …1678; or London, Emlyn, Wilson and Dougherty, 1800.  2 vol. 8 vo.]
Hawkins Crown pleas            3.5.0
[William Hawkins (1673-1746), A treatise of the pleas of the crown; or, A system of the principal matters relating to that subject, digested under proper heads. By William Hawkins … The seventh edition: in which the text is carefully collated with the original work ; the marginal references corrected ; new references from the modern reporters added ; a variety of manuscript cases inserted ; and the whole enlarged by an incorporation of the several statutes upon subjects of criminal law, to the thirty-fifth year of George.  First ed. 1728; 7th ed, London, G. G. and J. Robinson [etc.] 1795- 4 vol. 8vo; expensive]
Hines practice                    1.0.0
Impies Pleader                1.0.0
[John Impey (d. 1829), The modern pleader, containing the several forms of declarations in all actions, with notes thereon; Also, A Collection of Choice and Useful Precedents, for Declarations in the Superior Courts, in the Action of Account, and Common Assumpsit, with those on Promissory Notes. To Which Are Added, A Variety of useful Notes and Observations; the several Cases determined in those Actions, with the Evidence necessary to Support Each Declaration; a Table of Names of Cases cited, and a copious Index; the whole made easy and useful to Students, and to the Practisers In Town And Country; Furnishing the Latter with the necessary Instructions for their Agents. By John Impey, Inner-Temple, Author Of The Instructor Clericalis. In The Courts Of King’s Bench And Common Pleas, AS Also The Office Of Sheriff.  London: printed for the author, by His Majesty’s law-printers, and sold by Joseph Butterworth, No. 43, Fleet-Street, 1794; 510pp. 8vo.]
Impies Practice                2.5.0
[John Impey (d. 1829), The new instructor clericalis, stating the authority, jurisdiction, and modern practice of the Court of King’s Bench. With directions for commencing and defending actions, entring [sic] up judgments, … To which are added, the rules of the court, … The whole illustrated by useful notes and observations … Also, the office of sheriff, … By John Impey. London: 1782 (650pp. 8vo.
Instructor Clerecalas        0.7.0
[Robert Gardiner, Instructor Clericalis, being a collection of choice and useful precedents for pleadings both in the Kings-Bench and Common-Pleas.  London, 1705, 1721 et. seq.. 7 vol. 8vo. original ed. UVa]
Jesse Surveying                    0.7.0
[Zachariah Jess, A compendious system of practical surveying, and dividing of land: concisely defined, methodically arranged, and fully exemplified. The whole adapted for the easy and regular instruction of youth, in our American schools. Compiled by Zachariah Jess, schoolmaster in Wilmington. Copy right secured according to law.  Wilmington, Del.: Printed by Bonsal and Niles–for the compiler, 1799; 300pp. 8vo.  Incl. Table of logs, 59, [1] p. at end; Evans, 35670. Rink, E. Technical Americana, 2390 ]
Jennings Works                2.2.6
Kelings Reports                0.5.1
[William Kelynge (d. 1774), A report of cases in Chancery, the King’s Bench, &c. in the fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth years of his late Majesty King George the Second; during which Time Lord King was Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, and the Lord Raymond and Lord Hardwicke were Lord Chief Justices of England. To which are now added about seventy additional cases. By William Kelynge, of the Inner Temple, Esq.  London, 1764;  2 vol. 2o. -1st ed. 1740; UVa had 1764 ed.]
Laws of the United States    1.11.6
[?UVA- Laws of the United States, by Colvin, 1 vol. 8vo.]
Laws of North Carolina       1.11.0
[Laws of the state of North-Carolina. Published, according to act of Assembly, by James Iredell, now one of the associate justices of the Supreme Court of the United States.  Edenton [N.C.], Printed by Hodge & Wills, printers to the state of North-Carolina, 1791.  740pp., folio.]
Laws of North Carolina        0.6.6
[a second, beat-up copy of Iredell?]
Law of Copartnership        0.10.0
Leachs Crown Law            1.5.0
[Thomas Leach (1746-1818), Cases in crown law, determined by the twelve judges, by the Court of King’s Bench, and by Commissioners of Oyer and Terminer and general gaol delivery, from the fourth year of George the Second to the twenty-ninth year of George the Third. By Thomas Leach, Esq. of the Middle Temple, Barrister at Law.  Dublin:  Printed by P. Byrne, 108, Grafton-Street, 1789; 475pp. 8vo. (UVa has 1815, 2 vol. 8vo.)]
Linch Laws Philadelphia        0.16.6
Loveless on Bills of Lading        1.0.0
[Peter Lovelass (1786-1812), A full, clear, and familiar explanation of the law concerning bills of exchange, promissory notes, and the evidence on a trial by jury relative thereto; with a description of bank notes, and the privilege of attornies. By Peter Lovelass, of the Inner Temple, gent. Author of the Law’s disposal.  [Philadelphia] Printed by Joseph Crukshank, no. 91, High-Street, between Second and Third-Streets, 1791 (3rd ed.), 146pp. 8vo.]
Lofts Reports                    2.5.0
[Great Britain, Court of King’s Bench, Reports of cases adjudged in the Court of King’s Bench from Easter term 12 Geo. 3. to Michaelmas 14 Geo. 3. to Michaelmas 14 Geo. 3. (both inclusive.) With some select cases in the Court of Chancery, and of the Common Pleas, which are within the Same Period. To which is Added, the Case of General Warrants, and a Collection of Maxims. By Capel Lofft, Esquire, of Lincoln’s Inn.  London: printed by W. Strahan and M. Woodfall, Law Printers to His Majesty, 1776; 1,000pp 2o.;  UVa-Lofft’s Reports, London, 1776.  1 vol. fol.]
MacNallies Evidence        1.11.0
[Leonard MacNally, Esq., The Rules of Evidence on Pleas of the Crown, Illustrated from Printed and Manuscript Trials and Cases. London: J. Butterworth, 1802.]
Martins Revisal            2.16.0
[Francois Xavier Martin, ed., Martin’s Revisal of Iredell’s Laws of the State of North Carolina (originally publ. 1790), New Bern, 1804.]
Martains Reports                0.5.0
[Francois Xavier Martin,  Notes of a few decisions in the Superior courts of the state of North Carolina [1778-1797] and in the Circuit court of the United States for the district of North Carolina” [1792-1796] ]
Midfords Pleadings            0.16.0
[John Mitford, Baron Redesdale (1748-1830), A treatise on the pleadings in suits in the Court of Chancery by English bill. In two books.  London : printed for W. Owen, 1780; 134pp. 8vo.]
Modern Reports                  2.5.0
[Modern Reports Leach London, 1793.  12 vol. 8vo.- UVa]
Montisques Spirit of Laws        2.0.0
[Charles, Baron de Montesquieu, The Spirit of Laws (1748; first English trans. 1750), a very influential treatise on political and legal theory.]
Montisques Laws            2.15.0
[Another copy? both are expensive!]
Peak Evidence                    0.15.0
[Thomas Peake, A Compendium of the Law of Evidence.  Philadelphia: Printed and Sold by P. Byrne, 1802.]
Perkins Conveyances           0.7.0

Pothier on Obligations            0.15.0
[Robert Joseph Pothier, A treatise on obligations, considered in a moral and legal view, translated from the French of Pothier; 2 Vol., Newburn, N.C., Martin and Ogden, 1802. (Translation of Traité des obligations, by Francois Xavier Martin himself.]
Powell on Contracts        1.5.0
[John Joseph Powell, Essay Upon the Law of Contracts and Agreements.  1st edition– London, 1792.  1st American edition– Walpole: Printed at the Press of Thomas & Thomas by Cheever Felch, 1802.]
Raymonds Reports            5.0.0 
[ expensive!   Robert Raymond, Baron Raymond (1673-1733), Reports of cases argued and adjudged in the courts of King’s Bench and Common Pleas, in the reigns of The late King William, Queen Anne, King George the First, King George the Second. Taken and collected by the Right Honourable Robert Lord Raymond, Late Lord Chief Justice of the Court of King’s Bench.  London, 1743; 2 vol., 1600pp., 2o.  There is a separate volume containing cases from the reign of Charles II, and subsequent editions bringing it into the reign of George III.]
Samuel Chases Trials    0.10.0
[Report of the Trial of the Hon. Samuel Chase, One of the Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States, Before the High Court of Impeachment, Composed of the United States Senate… with the Necessary Documents and Official Papers From his Impeachment to final Acquital.  Baltimore, 1805. Chase was a Federalist Justice appointed by George Washington.]
Sanders on uses & trusts   1.5.0
[Francis William Sanders, An Essay of the Law of Uses and Trusts, and on the Nature and Operation of Conveyances at Common Law, 1792 (3rd ed. 1813)]
Solicitors Guide                0.10.0
[Richard Boote (d. 1782), The solicitor’s guide and tradesman’s instructor, concerning bankrupts. Containing The Law relating thereto; with plain Directions whereby every one may see how he may be affected by, and in what Manner act under a Commission of Bankrupt; whether he be Debtor, Creditor or Assignee: Also the Bankrupt is shewn his Interest and Duty, and the Method to obtain his Certificate, and the Solicitor (or his Clerk) enabled to proceed under a Commission with Ease and Expedition. To which is annexed the various forms of proceedings, viz. Memorandums, Depositions, Examinations, Affidavits, Letters of Attorney, Orders of Dividend, Certificate, Bill of Fees, &c. with Instructions relating to the same. By the author of The solicitor’s practice in the High Court of Chancery epitomized.  London: J. Worrall, 1760 (1781, 1794; 72pp. 8vo.), or Richard Edmunds, The solicitor’s guide to the practice of the office of pleas in His Majesty’s Court of Exchequer, at Westminster; in which are Introduced Bills of Costs in Various Cases, and A Variety of useful Precedents, With a Compleat Index to the Whole. By Richard Edmunds, One of the Attornies of the said Office.  London, 1794.  332pp. 8vo.
?Statutes of England            0.7.6
[not UVa- Statutes at Large, from 9 Henry III to 5 George IV. London, 41 vol.! 8vo.]
Taylors Reports        1.0.0
[NC Supreme Ct publ. by FX Martin]
Thomas Cooper                0.0.6
[Thomas Cooper (1759-1839 was an English academic and lawyer who was tried and imprisoned in 1799 under the Alien and Sedition Act for writing an article libeling President John Adams.  He was appointed a professor of law at the University of Virginia by Thomas Jefferson and taught at other universities.  This could be Account of the Trial of Thomas Cooper (Philadelphia, 1800), or his The Bankrupt Law of American Compared with that of England (1801), or one of this earlier works on politics.]
?Thomas Murrays Trial            0.8.0
[xLOC; no Thomas Murray anything in ESTC]
Trial of Thos. Walker        0.10.0
[Thomas Walker (1749-1817), The whole proceedings on the trial of an action brought by Thomas Walker, merchant, against William Roberts, barrister at law, for a libel. Tried by a special jury at the assizes at Lancaster, March 28, 1791, before the Hon. Sir Alexander Thomson, Knight, One of the Barons of his Majesty’s Court of Exchequer. taken in short hand by Joseph Gurney.  Manchester, 1791; 208pp. 8vo.
Trials per pais                  0.15.0
[Giles Duncombe, Trials per pais. Or The law of England concerning juries by nisi prius, &c. With a compleat treatise of the law of evidence.  London, 5th ed., 1718; 532pp. 8vo. (Dublin and Philadelphia, 1793).]
Vatals Law of Nations  1.10.0
Virginia Debates            1.10.0
[Virginia Convention (1788) Debates and other proceedings of the Convention of Virginia, convened at Richmond, on Monday the 2d day of June, 1788, for the purpose of deliberating on the Constitution recommended by the Grand Federal Convention. To which is prefixed, the Federal Constitution.  Petersburg, 1789.  3 vol. 8vo.]
Wards Law of Nations        1.5.0
[Robert Ward, An Enquiry into the Foundation and History of the Laws of Nations in Europe from the Time of the Greeks and Romans, to the Age of Grotius.  2 vol., London, 1795.]
?Wats on Cross & Rasaw ?    0.15.0
Wilsons & Sulkeld Repts    10.0.0
[Great Britain. Court of King’s Bench Reports, 1688-1712.  Reports of cases adjudged in the Court of King’s Bench: with some special cases in the courts of Chancery, Common Pleas, and Exchequer, alphabetically digested under proper heads; from the first year of K. William and Q. Mary to the tenth year of Q. Anne. By William Salkeld, late Serjeant at Law. With two tables; one of the Names of the Cases, the other of the Principal Matters therein contained. In one volume complete. Allowed and approved of by the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, and all the Judges. Being the most useful Collection of Cases for Justices of Peace, and also for Barristers, Students, and all Practisers of the Law.  London: printed by W. Strahan and M. Woodfall, Law Printers to the King’s Most Excellent Majesty; for Edward Johnston, in Ludgate Street, 1773; 3 vol. folio.  UVa- Salkeld’s Reports, Evans, London, 1795. 3 vol. 8vo.]
Wooderans Institutes        5.2.6
[ John Wood, Rector of Cadleigh,  Institutes of ecclesiastical and civil polity. By the Reverend John Wood, B.D. Rector of Cadleigh, in Devonshire, and formerly of Sidney-Sussex College, Cambridge.  London: Printed for B. Law, Numb. 13, Ave-Maria-Lane, 1773; 142pp. 8vo.; UVa- Wood’s Institutes, London 1772,1 vol. fol.; or Wooddeson’s Lectures on the Laws of Eng. Lond 1793… 3 vol. 8vo.]

McCrary Eagles II

July 30, 2009

Sometimes when I try to put everything I know into one post, it gets w-a-y t-o-o l-o-n-g (See textile processes, above.)

So last time I refrained from putting in those photos I mentioned of the 1935 Eagles game in Randleman.

The seven pictures I have came with the three Bud Scarboro photos, which all seem to date from 1934 or 1935.

Dates are written on the backs of the photos, but are confusing. For example, the photo above is captioned “Clark Thornburg catching; Bright Holland batting, made at Randleman, N.C. 1934”

But the photo is all but identical to this one, captioned “Press Burge in action, 1935.” The tin roof over the dugout, the wooden cage protecting the crowd from foul balls, the women in white dresses behind the catcher, the boys in overalls- all appear to be the same, though labeled a year apart.

The owner wrote “Jack Cox, 1935” on this view.

This one just says, “Monk Davis, 1935”. Monk Davis was the uncle of J.B. Davis, the current CEO of Asheboro furniture manufacturer Klaussner Furniture Industries.

Here is the only photo of a pitcher in action, labeled “Grant- Pitcher, 1935;” behind him in the outfield distance is the scoreboard.

And the scoreboard is shown in detail here, the most visually-interesting photo, and of course it’s the only one where the subject is not identified. But the 1935 chalk board/ scoreboard couldn’t be much different from modern Major League electronic scoreboards… The Home Team evidently won this game 3-1, so given this McCrary Eagle’s happy aspect- looking for all the world like he hit a game-winning home run- this scoreboard may not have been in Randleman. Unless, that is, the Eagles at the time played their home games where ever they could find an empty ball park- a problem not unknown to new teams.

The last photo is the only one in the collection of a non-Eagle. The Oak Ridge player is captioned on the back of the photo “J.O. Scarborough- Oak Ridge Left fielder. He, leading his club in batting in 1925 [sic- 1935?], batted .439 with five homeruns. Miller- at bat; Bruton- catching.” I assume that the name refers to the Oak Ridge Military Academy, located in northwest Guilford County, NC []. FYI, in one of the many ironic paradoxes of Piedmont history, Oak Ridge Institute was founded in 1852 as a Quaker boarding school. During World War I, the ROTC came to campus, and by 1929 the school had been transformed into a full-fledged military academy- since 1991 the “Official Military Academy of North Carolina.” The paradox, for those who are still stopped a few phrases back, is that Quakers historically have fervently held to the so-called “Peace Testimony,” putting them on the exact opposite side of the spectrum from war and the military. For further information, see , since the school’s own history link doesn’t appear to be working. They have been nearly sunk by financial troubles this summer, after all.

McCrary Eagles Baseball

July 29, 2009

It has been too long since I posted here- both because of the length of my textile processes posts, and because it has been the height of summer, and the yard, the garden, vacations and birthdays have taken up my time. Sorry!

In line with both textiles and summer is the topic of baseball; particularly the textile league team of Asheboro’s Acme-McCrary hosiery mill. The 1937 McCrary Eagles team is pictured above, because in that year the team won the North Carolina semi-pro state title and went to the national championships in Wichita, KS (they lost there). Pictured above are (left to right, and front to back): Pat Short, Hayes Harrington, Sam Lankford and Jack Underwood (bat boy); Mal Craver, Guy Clodfelter, Neely Hunter (Manager), John Griffin, Jack Cox and Bob McFayden; Paul Cheek, Lester Burge, Hal Johnson, Mike Briggs, Gates Smith, Hooks Calloway, Tom Burnett, Red Norris and Charlie Barnes (Trainer).

Baseball goes back a long way in Randolph County—Trinity College was playing UNC-Chapel Hill and NC State as early as the 1880s. The Deep River textile communities joined in the “Deep River League” at least by the turn-of-the-century, and the games between those communities were cut-throat contests for community pride and pecking order.

The McCrary Eagles baseball team was assembled starting in 1933 or 1934; by the 1940s there was also an Eagles basketball team. I’m being vaguer than usual on these dates because I’m really writing here about a group of artifacts, not the team as a whole.

In May of 2007 I met a very nice guy from Troy, Jerry Parsons, who played American Legion baseball in Asheboro on the fabled teams of 1967-1970, with players who were legends at the time- Jimmy Dollyhigh, Scott Rush, Mike Voncannon, Keith Green, Larry Hollingsworth, and Tommy Raines. Jerry walked into my office and offered to sell me a virtually complete McCrary Eagles uniform. He had bid it in at the estate auction of Bud Scarboro in the 1980s. Bud was the long-time operator of the Gulf Service Station in Wadeville, NC, and had been born in Mt. Gilead.

Fifty years before his death, Bud Scarboro played on the 1934 and 1935 McCrary Eagles teams. Like many southern boys of the time, baseball ran in his blood, and in his family. His brothers Ray and Junior also played for the Eagles at some point, and his cousin Ray Scarboro pitched for the White Sox and for the Yankees in the 1952 World Series.

Along with the uniform came eight snapshots processed by the “Flying Film Company Inc.” of San Antonio Texas. They were apparently taken in 1934 or 1935 (both dates are written on the photos) at a game played in Randleman between the Eagles and a team from Oak Ridge.

In the first group of three, Bud Scarboro poses for the camera in his Eagles uniform, the same one I bought from Jerry Parsons. I have everything shown except the cap, the belt and the shoes, and what the real thing best illustrates is how much black and white photographs bleed the vivid life out of the scene.

The actual uniform is a surprisingly thick, scratchy cream-colored wool; the lettering, stockings and Eagle arm patch add vivid blue and red accents to the ensemble.

(The stockings I received are obviously not the solid blue or red ones worn by the team in all their pictures, but these have been well worn all the same.)

The uniforms were top quality- made by Spalding, supplier of Major League uniforms. Bud was a size 42- large even by modern standards, but positively chunky by the measure of Depression-era scrawny Southern boys.

4 Not pictured in any of the action photos, but being worn in Wichita by Mal Craver and Hooks Calloway is the warm-up jacket, a heavy weight wool jersey with brown trim and an elaborate blue eagle on a red circle.

The eagle clutches gear and lightning bolt symbols which show that it was modeled, if not stolen outright, from the National Recovery Administration Blue Eagle. The NRA was a New Deal Agency created by one of President Roosevelt’s National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933.  It was led by Hugh Samuel Johnson, a retired US Army general and businessman, who saw the NRA as a national crusade to increase employment, reduce “destructive competition,” and regenerate industrial production. The program was ruled unconstitutional in 1935 by the US Supreme Court, but most of it reappeared later that year in the National Labor Relations Act.

The NRA was popular with workers because it set the first minimum wage laws. The Blue Eagle (said to be a stylized Art Deco version of the tribal American Thunderbird) was part of a successful publicity campaign which made “voluntary” membership in the NRA effectively mandatory. Since any business that supported the NRA could put the symbol on shop windows and packages, businesses that didn’t were often boycotted. Branding its baseball team with the name and symbol was obviously meant to show that Acme-McCrary was a big supporter of the NRA!

Fishing in Deep River, 1922

January 23, 2009

Here is an anonymous letter to the editor dealing with what the writer believes is the unappreciated patriotic history of Bell’s Mill and the Battle of Guilford Courthouse.

It’s something I found while reading the September 28, 1922 edition of The Courier, published then in Asheboro once a week.

What interests me more than the over-wrought history is the author’s description of recreational fishing and picnicking in the ’20’s; it has been a while since a net or a seine was standard equipment for fishing on the Deep.

That’s why I’ve coupled it to the above photograph, also probably dating to the 1920s or 30s, which has lost any identification other than it came out of a handful of snapshots I bought in an Asheboro second-hand store.

The photo at least can serve to illustrate this happy, long-gone day at Walker’s Mill.

Here is a transcription of the article (typos corrected):

Fishing in Deep River.

Some days ago quite a number of the people in the community of Walker’s Mill, on Deep River, met at the mill for a day’s fishing. It was one of those days that come occasionally in life that makes us feel glad that we are permitted to be present. The day was lovely, and there was that unmistakeable evidence of hospitality and good will among the entire number present that caused those of us out of the community to know that we were welcome. Some time near 12 o’clock the ladies began to fry fish as they were brought in from the men handling the seines. This was kept up till near three o’clock, when they quit fishing, after having caught more than two bushels of fish, some of them weighing as much as six pounds.

Under a table groaning with other good things to eat, and then piled up with fried fish, it was all that any human could ask.

In looking around the place I was told by one of the citizens there that this place was once known as the Bell Mill. It then quickly dawned on me that this was the place where Cornwallis marched his army the next day after the hard-fought battle at Guilford Courthouse. The effect of which was to break down the English power in our state, subdue the Tories and was the blow that broke the chain of tyranny which bound our country to England. For a month the American people had been in breathless anxiety. Cornwallis had sought eagerly a trial by battle with Gen. Greene, but after this he avoided any other conflict with the American army.

I would not help but compare in my mind, the happy and peaceful spirit which characterized the social gathering on that day, with the troublesome times, which the people must have undergone, when there was encamped on the very same ground that well-trained and dangerous foe to American freedom, the British army under control of the skilled and brave Lord Cornwallis.

It was a pleasure to be with these people on the day first referred to, and to know that they have in their veins the very same blood that marked their ancestors as people of pure patriotism, unsullied devotion to liberty, and unyielding opposition to every form of tyranny. The Bell old mill has been replaced by an up to date roller mill, which is now owned by Mr. Will Coletrane, Mr. Routh, and I think one other.

May the people of that section live long and happy, and again meet at their annual fishing place.